|20||Archduke||Ferdinand of Austria (Tuscany Line) - (Grand Duke Ferdinando III of Tuscany)||1769||1824||Princess||Luisa of Bourbon-Two Sicilies||1773||1802||See
37.2 - Ferdinand became Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1790 (and ruled 1790-1799 and then 1814-1824) when it was ceded to him by his father Leopold (on becoming Holy Roman Emperor). Between 1799 and 1814 Tuscany in various disguises was under the rule of the French (Napoleon Bonaparte) or the House of Bourbon-Parma.
In 1814 with the defeat of Napoleon and following the Treaty of Vienna Ferdinand was able to reclaim Tuscany.
Ferdinand was a younger brother of Emperor Franz I of Austria.
|20||Archduke||Ferdinand of Austria (Tuscany Line) - (Grand Duke Ferdinando III of Tuscany)||1769||1824||Princess||Maria Ferdinanda of Saxony||1796||1865||See
26.62 - Ferdinand became Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1790 (and ruled 1790-1799 and then 1814-1824) when it was ceded to him by his father Leopold (on becoming Holy Roman Emperor).
Between 1799 and 1814 Tuscany in various disguises was under the rule of the French (Napoleon Bonaparte) or the House of Bourbon-Parma.
Certain areas of Tuscany such as Valdichiana and Maremma were swamp or bog land and which were a major cause of malaria. A reclamation programme had been in place for many years and Ferdinando III was personally involved in this and as a consequence fell ill and subsequently dying from malaria.
|20.1||Archduchess||Caroline of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1793||1802|
|20.2||Archduke||Francesco of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1794||1800|
|20.3||Archduke||Leopoldo of Austria (Tuscany Line) - (Grand Duke Leopoldo II of Tuscany)||1797||1870||Princess||Maria Anna Carolina of Saxony||1799||1832||See 26.65 - Leopoldo abdicated his throne on 21 July 1859 in favour of his son Archduke Ferdinando.|
|20.3||Archduke||Leopoldo of Austria (Tuscany Line) - (Grand Duke Leopoldo II of Tuscany)||1797||1870||Princess||Antoniette of Bourbon-Two Sicilies||1814||1898||See
37.58 - Leopoldo was briefly deposed in 1848 (some reports show 1849) but restored a few months later.
Leopoldo finally abdicated his throne on 21 July 1859 in favour of his son Archduke Ferdinando.
The New York Times Obituary on Leopoldo.
A report on the funeral of Leopoldo.
An interesting article on Antoniette following her death.
|20.31||Archduchess||Maria Carolina of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1822||1841|
|20.32||Archduchess||Auguste of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1825||1864||Prince||Luitpold of Bavaria||1821||1912||See
18.15 - Luitpold ruled Bavaria from 1886 as
Regent due to the incapacity of his nephew
A very brief report on the marriage of Auguste and Luitpold
Report on the death of Luitpold
|20.33||Archduchess||Maria Maximilianna of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1827||1834|
|20.34||Archduchess||Maria Isabella of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1834||1901||Prince||Francesco of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (Count of Trapani)||1827||1892||See 37.5N|
|20.35||Archduke||Ferdinand of Austria (Tuscany Line) - (Grand Duke Ferdinand IV of Tuscany)||1835||1908||Princess||Anne of Saxony||1836||1859||See
26.667 - Ferdinand lost his throne when Tuscany was united with Sardinia on 22 March 1860.
According to Louise of Tuscany, Ex-Crown Princess of Saxony book "My OWN STORY" Anne died from typhoid fever contracted through eating oysters.
|20.35||Archduke||Ferdinand of Austria (Tuscany Line) - (Grand Duke Ferdinand IV of Tuscany)||1835||1908||Princess||Alicia of Bourbon-Parma||1849||1935||Ferdinand lost his throne when Tuscany was united with Sardinia on 22 March 1860. Alicia was a sister of Duke Roberto I of Bourbon-Parma.
An interesting article in the New York Times regarding the Tuscany dynasty.
|20.351||Archduchess||Maria Antonietta of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1858||1883||There were newspaper reports in 1953/1954 of court actions taken by an individual Robert Pachmann.
Pachmann took his case to the Vienna Court in 1953 claiming that he was the son of Crown Prince Rudolph of Austria and Archduchess Maria Antonietta who he reckoned were secretly married on New Years day 1880 before Rudolph's "official" wedding in May 1881 to Princess Stephanie of Belgium.
Pachmann also claimed that Rudolf continued to visit Maria Antonietta on the French Riviera after his marriage to Stephanie and it was there in 1883 that she gave birth to Robert and she died a few months.
Pachmann told the court that as a baby he was secretly brought to Vienna and cared for by Heinrich and Mare Pachmann, who substituted him for their own son who had died.
Although Pachmann said he had "complete documentary proof" that he was the only legitimate son of Rudolf , in late 1954 the appeals court upheld a previous verdict that the case be rejected for lack of proof.
|20.352||Archduke||Leopold of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1868||1935||Wilhelmine Abramovic||1877||1908||Leopold renounced his titles on 29 December 1902 and took the name Leopold Wolfling. Leopold was the author of "My Life Story - From Archduke to Grocer"
(see Monarchies of Europe - Sources of Information).
It was reported that Emperor Francis Joseph had approved of an arrangement by which an annuity of £1,200 is settled on the Leopold subject to him not marrying Wilhelmine Adamovic.
A short The New York Times article on Leopold's marriage to Wilhelmine Abramovic.
Most genealogy sources show the year of death of Wilhelmine Abramovic as 1908 However a Newspaper in article in 1936 reported that her coffin had recently been lowered into a grave, she had died a beggar
|20.352||Archduke||Leopold of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1868||1935||Maria Ritter||1877||1938||A short report on the wedding of Leopold and Maria|
|20.352||Archduke||Leopold of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1868||1935||Clara Groger||1894||1978||Headstone details of Leopold and his wife Clara|
|20.353||Archduchess||Luisa Antoinette of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1870||1947||King||Friedrich Augustus III of Saxony||1865||1932||See
26.6654 - Friedrich abdicated his throne on 13 November 1918.
Luise didn't follow the etiquette at the Saxony court which resulted in arguments with her father in law King Georg of Saxony.
On 9 (or possibly 11/12) December 1902 Luise with the assistance of her brother Archduke Leopold left Saxony without her children but pregnant to meet up with the teacher of her children, André Giron. She was divorced on 11 February 1903 and created Countess of Montignoso on 13 July 1903. Luise married the Musician Enrico Toselli in London on 25 September 1907.
Luisa's daughter Anna Monika Pia of Saxony was born on 4 May 1903 in Lindau, Bavaria and despite the efforts of the Court of Saxony who's representatives were present for the birth it wasn't until 7 April 1908 that Anna Monika Pia arrived in Dresden, Saxony into the care of her father.
Obituary of King Friedrich Augustus
|20.353||Archduchess||Luisa Antoinette of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1870||1947||Enrico Toselli||1883||1926||Marriage Registration of
Archduchess Luisa (Countess of Montignoso) and
A brief report on the wedding of Luisa and Enrico
A more detailed report on the wedding of Luisa and Enrico and events prior to the wedding.
A report on the death of Enrico
|20.3531||Carlo Emanuele Filiberto Toselli||1908||1969||Elena Socini||1914||1994||An announcement of the birth of Carlo Emanuele Filiberto|
|20.354||Archduke||Joseph Ferdinand of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1872||1942||Rosa Kaltenbrunner||1878||1929||An interesting article on Joseph Ferdinand.
Joseph Ferdinand had a close encounter with death when ballooning over Vienna when a storm drove the airship into the Danube. He along with the other passengers were up to their necks in water before being pulled to the banking.
|20.354||Archduke||Joseph Ferdinand of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1872||1942||Gertrud Tomanek||1902||1997||Gertrud used the title Princess of Florence.
Death report of Joseph Ferdinand
|20.355||Archduke||Peter Ferdinand of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1874||1948||Princess||Maria Christina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies||1877||1947||See 37.5545|
|20.3551||Archduke||Gottfried of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1902||1984||Princess||Dorothea of Bavaria||1920||2015||See 18.15155|
|20.35511||Archduchess||Elisabeth Maria of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1939||Friedrich Hubert Edler von Braun||1934|
|20.35512||Archduchess||Alice Maria of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1941||Baron||Vittorio Manno||1938|
|20.35513||Archduke||Leopold Franz of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1942||2021||Laetitia de Belsunce-d'Arenberg||1941||Laetitia is the daughter of Henri, Marquess of Belzunce (1909-1944) and Marie-Thérese de la Poëze d'Harambure (1911-2005). Laetitia was adopted by her step father Eric Engelbert (11th Duke of Arenberg) the third husband of Marie-Thérese de la Poëze. Eric Engelbert succeeded his brother Engelbert-Charles (10 th Duke of Arenberg) as Duke of Arenberg|
|20.35513||Archduke||Leopold Franz of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1942||2021||Marta Perez Valverde||1947||Leopold on his second marriage 18 June 1993 renounced his rights as Head of the Tuscan Habsburg branch in favour of his son Sigismund|
|20.355131||Archduke||Sigismund of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1966||Elyssa Edmonstone||1973||Sigismund is the present Head of the Tuscany Line of Habsburg-Lorraine family. Elyssa is the daughter of Sir Archibald Bruce Charles, 17th of Duntreath, 7th Bt., 1954 - (b. 1934). Sir Archibald Bruce Charles's grandfather Sir Archibald Edmonstone, C.V.O., D.L., 15th of Duntreath, 5th Bt., (1867-1954) was a brother to Alice Frederica Edmonstone (married to Hon. George Keppel) who was the famed Alice Keppel the mistress to King Edward VII|
|20.3551311||Archduke||Leopold Amedeo of Austria (Tuscany Line)||2001|
|20.3551312||Archduchess||Tatyana Maria of Austria (Tuscany Line)||2003|
|20.3551313||Archduke||Maximilian Stefano of Austria (Tuscany Line)||2004|
|20.355132||Archduke||Guntram of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1967||Debora de Sola||1970||Debora was created Countess von Habsburg|
|20.35514||Archduchess||Maria Antoinette of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1950||Baron||Hans Walter von Proff zu Irnich||1938||Hans Walter has his title by adoption (was born Hans Walter Natterman)|
|20.3552||Archduchess||Helena of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1903||1924||Duke||Philipp-Albrecht of Württemberg||1893||1975||See 22.K3111 - Helena died a week after giving birth to her daughter Marie Christine. Following Archduchess Helena's death, Duke Philipp-Albrecht married secondly her sister Archduchess Rosa of Austria (Tuscany Line)|
|20.3553||Archduke||Georg of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1905||1952||Countess||Marie Valerie of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems||1913||2011||See 20.38311|
|20.35531||Archduchess||Guntram Maria of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1937||1944|
|20.35532||Archduke||Radbot Ferdinand of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1938||Caroline Proust||1952|
|20.35533||Archduchess||Marie Christine of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1941||1942|
|20.35534||Archduchess||Walburga of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1942||Baron||Carl-Eduard Tasso de Saxe-Coburgo e Braganca||1931||See 28.522261|
|20.35535||Archduchess||Verena Gertrud of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1944||1945|
|20.35536||Archduke||Johann of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1946||1946|
|20.35537||Archduchess||Katharina Maria of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1948||Roland Huber||1950|
|20.35538||Archduchess||Agnes Maria of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1950||Baron||Peter von Fürstenberg||1945|
|20.35539||Archduke||Georg Mari of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1952||Archduke Georg was born posthumously|
|20.3554||Archduchess||Rosa of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1906||1983||Duke||Philipp-Albrecht of Württemberg||1893||1975||See 22.K3111 - Duke Philipp-Albrecht married firstly Archduchess Helena of Austria (Tuscany Line) a sister of Archduchess Rosa|
|20.356||Archduke||Heinrich Ferdinand of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1878||1969||Karolina Ludescher||1883||1981||Archduke Heinrich Ferdinand retired from
Court life to study art and the possible love of a woman of lower birth. He married Karolina Ludescher and one wonders if she was
the woman for whom Heinrich gave up court life, the article is dated 1911 although they didn't marry until 1919?
A report on Heinrich Ferdinand's discharge from military service
|20.357||Archduchess||Anna Maria of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1879||1961||Prince||Johannes zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein and Jagstberg (7 th Prince of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein and Jagstberg)||1863||1921|
|20.3571||Princess||Maria Rosa zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein||1903||1999||Josef Hugo Waldenmeier||1895||1976||A short report on the intended marriages of Maria Rosa and Josef. The article has an incorrect surname for Josef|
|20.3572||Prince||Karl Ferdinand zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein (8 th Prince of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein)||1905||1950||Baroness||Clara von Meyern-Hohenberg||1912||2001||On the birth of Karl Ferdinand's brother Albrecht (9 September 1906), there was a separation of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein and Jagstberg into two branches Hohenlohe-Bartenstein and Hohenlohe-Jagstberg. Karl Ferdinand was killed in a motor car accident at Unterbalbach near Koningshofen Baden|
|20.35721||Princess||Franziska Maria Elisabeth zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein||1937||Alexander Frowein||1934||1999|
|20.35721||Princess||Franziska Maria Elisabeth zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein||1937||Baron||Maximilien de Watteville-Berckheim||1940|
|20.35722||Princess||Henriette of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein||1938||Count||Hans Veit of Toerring-Jettenbach||1935||See 18.K5211|
|20.35723||Prince||Ferdinand Michael zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein (9 th Prince of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein)||1942||Princess||Franziska zu Oettingen-Oettingen und Oettingen-Spielberg||1947||2011|
|20.357231||Hereditary Prince||Maximilian Leopold zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein||1972||Cristina Vozzi Castriota Scanderbeg||1980|
|20.357232||Prince||Felix Michael zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein||1973|
|20.357233||Princess||Alice Henriette zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein||1978||Prince||Christian of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg||1978|
|20.357234||Princess||Margherita Lucia zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein||1979|
|20.357235||Princess||Georgina Franziska zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein||1982||Count||Clemens Axel Douglas||1980|
|20.3573||Prince||Albrecht Maria zu Hohenlohe-Jagstberg (5 th Prince of Hohenlohe-Jagstberg)||1906||1996||Countess||Therese von Geldern-Egmont||1911||2000||On the birth of Albrecht (9 September 1906), there was a separation of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein and Jagstberg into two branches Hohenlohe-Bartenstein and Hohenlohe-Jagstberg|
|20.35731||Prince||Alexander Maria zu Hohenlohe-Jagstberg (6 th Prince of Hohenlohe-Jagstberg)||1937||Princess||Michaela von Schönburg-Waldenburg||1940|
|20.35732||Prince||Johannes Maria zu Hohenlohe-Jagstberg||1939||2020||Andrea Vogel||1944||Johannes Maria was adopted by his maternal uncle Count Ladislaus von Mirbach- Geldern-Egmont on 24 June 1980 and bears the name Count von Mirbach-Geldern- Egmont Prince zu Hohenlohe-Jagstberg.|
|20.35733||Princess||Eleonore Maria zu Hohenlohe-Jagstberg||1940||Baron||Peter von Kap-herr||1934||2008|
|20.3574||Princess||Elisabeth zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein||1907||1927|
|20.3575||Princess||Margarethe zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein||1909||1985||Raffaele Corsi di Turri dei Baroni di Turri||1908||1990|
|20.3576||Prince||Friedrich August zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein||1910||1985||Marie Claire Buet de Villars||1916||2012|
|20.35761||Princess||Helena Maria zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein||1960||Count||Carl-Friedrich Schaffgotsch gt Semperfrei von und zu Kynast u.Greifenstein||1951|
|20.35761||Princess||Helena Maria zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein||1960||Christoph Karl Reimnitz||1959|
|20.358||Archduchess||Margareta Maria of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1881||1965|
|20.359||Archduchess||Germana Maria of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1884||1955|
|20.35J||Archduchess||Agnes Maria of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1891||1945|
|20.35K||Archduke||Robert Ferdinand of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1885||1895|
|20.36||Archduchess||Maria Theresa of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1836||1838|
|20.37||Archduchess||Maria Cristina of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1838||1849|
|20.38||Archduke||Karl Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1839||1892||Princess||Immaculata of Bourbon-Two Sicilies||1844||1899||See 37.556 - A report on the marriage of Karl Salvator and Immaculata which took place in the Vatican which was blessed by Pope Pius VI|
|20.381||Archduchess||Maria Theresa of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1862||1933||Archduke||Karl Stefan of Austria (Teschen Line)||1860||1933||See 44.34 - Archduke Karl Stefan was considered as a candidate for the Throne of an independent Poland.
The New York Times report on the marriage of Maria Theresa and Karl Stefan
|20.382||Archduke||Leopold Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1863||1931||Infanta||Blanca of Spain||1868||1949||See 12.5211 - Leopold Salvator went into exile following the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy after the end of the World War 1. He was however allowed to return to Austria in 1931 where he died in Vienna.|
|20.3821||Archduchess||Maria de los Dolores of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1891||1974|
|20.3822||Archduchess||Maria Immakulata of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1892||1971||Nobile||Inigo Serneri||1891||1950|
|20.3823||Archduchess||Margarita of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1894||1986||Francesco di Marchio||1887||1968|
|20.3824||Archduke||Rainer of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1895||1930||Rainer died from blood poisoning|
|20.3825||Archduke||Leopold of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1897||1958||Baroness||Dagmar von Nicolics-Podrinska||1898||1967||Leopold became a naturalised USA citizen in 1953 as Leopold Lorraine. Baroness Dagmar was created Baroness von Wolfenau on 12 February 1922|
|20.3825||Archduke||Leopold of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1897||1958||Alice Coburn||1894||1960||Leopold became a naturalised USA citizen in 1953 as Leopold Lorraine|
|20.3826||Archduchess||Maria Antonia of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1899||1977||Ramon Orlandis y Villalonga||1896||1936|
|20.3826||Archduchess||Maria Antonia of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1899||1977||Luis Perez Sucre||1899||1957|
|20.3827||Archduke||Anton of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1901||1987||Princess||Ileana of Roumania||1909||1991||See
6.125 - Brief report on the
wedding of Anton and Ileana.
Princess Ileana following her divorce from her second husband Stefan Issarescu became an Orthodox nun, and as Mother Alexandra founded The Orthodox Monastery of the Transfiguration Ellwood City, Pennsylvania in 1967. Mother Alexandra (Princess Ileana) was the first Abbess, followed by Mother Benedicta who arrived in 1978.
|20.38271 - QVD||Archduke||Stefan of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1932||1998||Jerrine Soper||1931||2015||Stefan became an American citizen and he and his family use the surname of Habsburg.
An interesting article in the Malvern Magazine "SPRING/SUMMER 2013" (*** this issue is no longer on the Malvern Site , archived copy via Wayback Machine ***) on the early and later life of Archduke Stefan - Please note it will take a while to upload as the magazine is 40 pages in total.
A brief newspaper article reporting on the intended marriage of Stefan and Jerrine.
The grave of Archduke Stefan and his wife. The photograph was taken prior to the unfortunate death of Jerrine.
Obituary of Jerrine Habsburg-Lothringen
|20.382711 - QVD||Count||Christopher Habsburg||1957||Elizabeth Popejoy||1967|
|20.382711 - QVD||Count||Christopher Habsburg||1957||Catherine Nastase Ripley||1958|
|20.382711 - QVD||Count||Christopher Habsburg||1957||Teresa Murray||1958|
|20.3827111 - QVD||Countess||Saygan Habsburg||1987||Michael Joseph Libtow Jr||1989|
|20.38271111 - QVD||Wulfric Aurelius Habsburg-Schultes||2011||Wulfric Aurelius is the son of Saygan Habsburg and her partner Leigh Thomas Schultes|
|20.38271112 - QVD||Jerrine Lee Libtow||2021|
|20.3827112 - QVD||Count||Stefan Habsburg||1990||Natalie Corder||1993|
|20.3827113 - QVD||Countess||Maria Habsburg||1997|
|20.382712 - QVD||Countess||Ileana Habsburg||1958||David Snyder||1956||2019||David Snyder and his wife Ileana were tragically involved in a
car accident in which he sadly was
killed and his wife seriously injured
Funeral notice for David Snyder
|20.3827121 - QVD||Alexandra Snyder||1984||Matthew Tillard||1983|
|20.38271211 - QVD||Aaron Nicholas Tillard||2011|
|20.38271212 - QVD||Oliver Stefan Tillard||2013|
|20.38271213 - QVD||Leonorah Josephine Tillard||2019|
|20.3827122 - QVD||Nicholas David Snyder||1987||Jacqueline Jones||?|
|20.38271221 - QVD||Theoden Adama Snyder||2014|
|20.3827123 - QVD||Constanza Snyder||1994|
|20.382713 - QVD||Count||Peter Habsburg||1959||Shari Reid||1960|
|20.382713 - QVD||Count||Peter Habsburg||1959||Lauren Klaus||1956|
|20.3827131 - QVD||Oksana Nicole Habsburg||1991||Oksana Nicole is the adopted daughter (adopted in 1997) of Peter & Lauren Habsburg|
|20.38271311 - QVD||Arya Cavill||2014||Arya is the daughter of Oksana Nicole Habsburg|
|20.3827132 - QVD||Alexander "Sasha" Stefan Habsburg||1996||Alexander Stefan is the adopted son (adopted in 1998) of Peter & Lauren Habsburg|
|20.3827133 - QVD||Tatiana Julia Habsburg||1997||Shaun Lehane||?||Tatiana Julia is the adopted daughter (adopted in 1997) of Peter & Lauren Habsburg|
|20.382714 - QVD||Countess||Constantza "Tantzi" Habsburg||1960||Mark Matheson||1958|
|20.382714 - QVD||Countess||Constantza "Tantzi" Habsburg||1960||Michael Dale Bain||1962|
|20.382715 - QVD||Count||Anton Habsburg||1964||Ashley Carrell||1966||2002|
|20.38272 - QVD||Archduchess||Marie Ileana of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1933||1959||Count||Jaroslav Kottulinsky||1917||1959||Archduchess Marie (who was expecting her second baby) and her husband were
killed in an aeroplane accident. An alternative newspaper report of the
Count Jaroslav Kottulinsky and Countess Marie were on a scheduled flight from Hamburg, Germany to Buenos Aires, Argentina; on 11 January 1959 and was on the approach to Rio de Janeiro-Galeão International Airport when it crashed near Flecheiras Beach just short of the runway. All 29 passengers and seven of the ten crew were killed, the co-pilot, steward and stewardess were the sole survivors .It was the first fatal accident involving Lufthansa since it was formed in 1955.
Count Jaroslav's mother was Countess Maria Therese von Meran (1893-1981) who in turn via her father (Count Johann von Meran 1867-1947) was a great granddaughter of Archduke Johann Baptist of Austria (1782-1859) and his morganatic wife Anna Maria Plochl (created Countess von Meran) . The descendants of Archduke Johann (ninth son of Roman Emperor Leopold II) and his wife Anna Maria bear the title Count/Countess von Meran.
|20.382721 - QVD||Countess||Ileana Kottulinsky||1958||2007||Noël van Innis||1939||Debrett's Peerage & Baronetage 2000 Page 76 shows Ileana Kottulinsky's husband as Baron Noël van Innis. I have been advised by two independent family sources that Noël van Innis is not a Baron which means Debrett's is in error. One of the sources mentions the "van Innis" belong to the Belgian nobility (see also van Innis under title Jonkheer). Ileana is a first cousin once removed to Count Alexander Kottulinsky (Ileana's father "Count Jaroslav Franz Kottulinsky 1917-1959" and Alexander's grandfather "Count Johann Adalbert Kottulinsky 1913-1984" were brothers)|
|20.38273 - QVD||Archduchess||Alexandra of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1935||Duke||Eugen Eberhard of Württemberg||1930||2022||See 22.K31123|
|20.38273 - QVD||Archduchess||Alexandra of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1935||Baron||Victor von Baillou||1931|
|20.382731 - QVD||Stillborn Child (child of Archduchess Alexandra of Austria (Tuscany Line) and Baron Victor von Baillou)||1975||1975|
|20.38274 - QVD||Archduke||Dominic of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1937||Virginia Engel von Voss||1937||2010|
|20.38274 - QVD||Archduke||Dominic of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1937||Emmanuela "Nella" Mlynarski||1948|
|20.382741 - QVD||Count||Sandor von Habsburg||1965||Priska Vilcsek||1959|
|20.382741 - QVD||Count||Sandor von Habsburg||1965||Herta Magarete Öfferl||1961||Some photographs of Sandor Habsburg-Lothringen and Herta Magarete Öfferl|
|20.3827411 - QVD||Count||Constantin von Habsburg||2000|
|20.382742 - QVD||Count||Gregor von Habsburg||1968||Jacquelyn Frisco||1965|
|20.38275 - QVD||Archduchess||Maria Magdalena of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1939||2021||Baron||Hans von Holzhausen||1929|
|20.382751 - QVD||Baron||Johann von Holzhausen||1960||Brunilda Castejon y Schneiders||1962|
|20.3827511 - QVD||Baron||Laurenz von Holzhausen||2001|
|20.382752 - QVD||Baron||Georg von Holzhausen||1962||Countess||Elena von Hoensbroech||1965||See 20.383535|
|20.3827521 - QVD||Baron||Alexander von Holzhausen||1994|
|20.3827522 - QVD||Baron||Tassilo von Holzhausen||1997|
|20.3827523 - QVD||Baron||Clemens von Holzhausen||2003|
|20.382753 - QVD||Baroness||Alexandra von Holzhausen||1963||Christoph Ferch||1959|
|20.3827531 - QVD||Ferdinand Ferch||1986|
|20.3827532 - QVD||Leopold Ferch||1988|
|20.3827533 - QVD||Benedikt Ferch||1993|
|20.3827534 - QVD||Elisabeth Ferch||1995|
|20.38276 - QVD||Archduchess||Elizabeth of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1942||2019||Friedrich Sandhofer||1934|
|20.382761 - QVD||Anton Sandhofer||1966||Katarzyna Marta Wojkowska||1962|
|20.3827611 - QVD||Dominik Sandhofer||1994|
|20.382762 - QVD||Margareta Sandhofer||1968||Enst Lux||1954|
|20.3827621 - QVD||Mauritio Maria Lux||1999|
|20.3827622 - QVD||Dorian Augustinus Lux||2001|
|20.382763 - QVD||Andrea Sandhofer||1969||Jorg Zarbl||1970|
|20.3827631 - QVD||Ferdinand Zarbl||1996|
|20.3827632 - QVD||Benedikt Zarbl||1999|
|20.382764 - QVD||Elisabeth Sandhofer||1971|
|20.3828||Archduchess||Assunta Alice of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1902||1993||Joseph Hopfinger||1905||1992|
|20.3829||Archduke||Franz Josef of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1905||1975||Maria Aloisa Baumer||1906||1987||Marriage registration of Archduke Franz Josef and Maria "Marta" Aloisa Baumer|
|20.3829||Archduke||Franz Josef of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1905||1975||Maria Elena Seunig||1925||1994|
|20.382K||Archduke||Karl Pius Maria of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1909||1953||Christa Satzger de Bálványos||1914||2001|
|20.383||Archduke||Franz Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1866||1939||Archduchess||Maria Valeria of Austria||1868||1924||See 19.J14|
|20.383||Archduke||Franz Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1866||1939||Baroness||Melanie von Riesenfels||1898||1984|
|20.3831||Archduchess||Elizabeth of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1892||1930||Count||Georg of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems||1878||1955||Following Archduchess Elizabeth's death, Count Georg married secondly her sister Archduchess Gertrud of Austria (Tuscany Line). The line of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems derive from Maximilian-Wunibald, 1 st Prince von Waldburg zu Zeil and Trauchburg (1750-1818) and his second wife Baroness Bernhardine von Waldburg (Countess of Wolfegg) (1772-1835)|
|20.38311||Countess||Marie Valerie of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems||1913||2011||Archduke||Georg of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1905||1952||See 20.3553|
|20.38312||Countess||Clementine of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems||1914||1941|
|20.38313||Countess||Elisabeth of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems||1917||1979|
|20.38314||Count||Franz Joseph of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems||1927||2022||Countess||Priscilla of Schönborn-Wiesentheid||1934||2019|
|20.3832||Archduke||Franz Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1893||1918|
|20.3833||Archduke||Hubert Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1894||1971||Princess||Rosemary of Salm-Salm||1904||2001||See 44.3212|
|20.38331||Archduke||Friedrich Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1927||1999||Countess||Margarethe Kálnoky von Köröspatak||1926|
|20.383311||Archduke||Leopold Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1956|
|20.383312||Archduchess||Marie Bernadette of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1958||Rupert Wolff||1957|
|20.383313||Archduke||Alexander Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1959||Marie Gabriele von Waldstein||1969|
|20.383314||Archduchess||Katharina Mathilde of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1960||Countess||Niall Brooks||1960|
|20.38332||Archduchess||Agnes of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1928||2007||Prince||Karl Alfred of Liechtenstein||1910||1985||See 41.33|
|20.38333||Archduchess||Maria Margaretha of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1930|
|20.38334||Archduchess||Maria Ludowika of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1931||1999|
|20.38335||Archduchess||Maria Adelheid of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1933||2021|
|20.38336||Archduchess||Elisabeth of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1935||1998||Prince||Heinrich of Auersperg-Breunner||1931||Archduchess Elisabeth was killed in a car accident at Ybbs an der Donau, Austria. Heinrich's father Prince Karl Alain of Auersperg (1895-1980) was adopted by his aunt Countess Ernestine Coudenhove, born Countess of Breunnerin 1928 and on 10 January 1929 was authorised to bear the name "Auersperg-Breunner".|
|20.383361||Prince||Johann Weikhard of Auersperg-Breunner||1961||Countess||Maria Philippa Calice||1974|
|20.383362||Princess||Isabel Maria of Auersperg-Breunner||1962||Hugues Stier||1960|
|20.383363||Prince||Maximilian Andreas of Auersperg-Breunner||1964||1990||Maximilian was killed in bicycle accident near Innsbruck|
|20.383364||Princess||Maria Dominica of Auersperg-Breunner||1970||Baron||Thomas von Schenk||1963|
|20.38337||Archduke||Andreas Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1936||Maria de la Piedad Espinosa||1953|
|20.38337||Archduke||Andreas Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1936||Countess||Valerie Podstatzky-Lichtenstein||1967|
|20.38338||Archduchess||Josepha of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1937||Count||Clemen von Waldstein-Wartenberg||1935||1996|
|20.38339||Archduchess||Valerie of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1941||Margrave||Maximilian "Max" of Baden||1933||2022||See 32.55222 - Report on the death of Margrave Maximiliann|
|20.3833J||Archduchess||Maria Alberta of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1944||Baron||Alexander von Kottwitz-Erdödy||1943|
|20.3833K||Archduke||Markus Emanuel of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1946||Hildegard "Hilde" Jungmayr||1955||Archduke Markus is the current owner of the
Kaiserville in Bad Ischal (the summer residence of Emperor Franz Joseph).
Archduke Markus's grandmother Archduchess Maria Valeria of Austria (who was married to Archduke Franz Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line) ) the youngest of four children of Emperor Franz Josef inherited the Kaiserville on the Emperor's death after which it descended to Archduke Markus.
|20.3833L||Archduke||Johann Maximilian of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1947||Annemarie Stummer||1950|
|20.3833M||Archduke||Michael Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1949||Eva Antonia von Hofmann||1961|
|20.3834||Archduchess||Hedwig of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1896||1970||Count||Bernard of Stolberg-Stolberg||1881||1952|
|20.38341||Countess||Marie Elisabeth of Stolberg-Stolberg||1919||2012||Marie became a nun as Mother Maria Bonifacia|
|20.38342||Count||Franz Joseph of Stolberg-Stolberg||1920||1986||Countess||Elisabeth Christiane Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau||1936||2011||Notice of Funeral Service for Countess (Gräfin) Elisabeth Scroll down the page unil you get to Gräfin Stolberg Elisabeth|
|20.38343||Count||Friedrich Leopold of Stolberg-Stolberg||1921||2007||Luisa von Pachmann||1923|
|20.38344||Count||Bernhard of Stolberg-Stolberg||1922||1958||Count Bernhard was killed in a car crash. Also see family grave [plate]|
|20.38345||Countess||Therese Maria of Stolberg-Stolberg||1923||1982||Count||Paul Joseph Wolff Metternich zur Gracht||1916||1993|
|20.38346||Count||Carl Franz of Stolberg-Stolberg||1925||2003||Edina Winkelbauer||1923||2003|
|20.38346||Count||Carl Franz of Stolberg-Stolberg||1925||2003||Ute Sommerlatte||1939|
|20.38347||Count||Ferdinand Maria of Stolberg-Stolberg||1926||1998||Baroness||Jutta von Cramm||1938|
|20.383471||Countess||Katharina Maria of Stolberg-Stolberg||1968||Jean François Poncelet||1959|
|20.383472||Countess||Johanna of Stolberg-Stolberg||1969||Prince||Clemens Angelus of Salm-Salm||1966||See 44.321334|
|20.383473||Count||Bernhard Franz of Stolberg-Stolberg||1970||Alice Lippert||1971|
|20.383474||Countess||Theresa Elisabeth of Stolberg-Stolberg||1973||Alexander Tessmar-Pfohl||1973|
|20.38348||Countess||Anna Regina of Stolberg-Stolberg||1927||2002||Jacques von Spirlet||1930|
|20.38349||Countess||Magdalena Maria of Stolberg-Stolberg||1930||Baron||Martin von Kripp zu Prunberg und Krippach||1924||1990|
|20.3835||Archduke||Theodor Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1899||1978||Countess||Maria Theresia von Waldburg zu Zeil und Trauchburg||1901||1967|
|20.38351||Archduke||Franz Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1927||2012||Princess||Anna-Amelia of Schönburg-Waldenburg||1936||1966|
|20.38351||Archduke||Franz Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1927||2012||Hedwig von Lichem-Lowenburg||1938||2000|
|20.38352||Archduchess||Theresa of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1931||Prince||Rasso of Bavaria||1926||2011||See 18.15156|
|20.38353||Archduchess||Maria Immakulata of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1933||2022||Count||Reinhart von Hoensbroech||1926||2005|
|20.383531||Countess||Alexandra von Hoensbroech||1960|
|20.383532||Count||Franz Lothar von Hoensbroech||1961||Baroness||Maria von Luninck||1965|
|20.383533||Countess||Maria Consuelo von Hoensbroech||1962||Count||Alexandre de Hemricourt de Grunne||1949|
|20.383534||Countess||Donata von Hoensbroech||1963||Count||Friedrich-August von Plettenberg||1961|
|20.383535||Countess||Elena von Hoensbroech||1965||Baron||Georg von Holzhausen||1962||See 20.382752|
|20.383536||Count||Florian von Hoensbroech||1969||Princess||Desiree of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach||1974||See 27.2411331|
|20.383537||Countess||Gloria Maria von Hoensbroech||1974|
|20.38354||Archduke||Carl Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1936||Baroness||Edith Wenzl von Sternbach||1943|
|20.3836||Archduchess||Gertrud of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1900||1962||Count||Georg von Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems||1878||1955||Count Georg married firstly Archduchess Elizabeth of Austria (Tuscany Line) a sister of Archduchess Gertrud. The line of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems derive from Maximilian-Wunibald, 1 st Prince von Waldburg zu Zeil and Trauchburg (1750-1818) and his second wife Baroness Bernhardine von Waldburg (Countess of Wolfegg) (1772-1835)|
|20.38361||Countess||Marie Sophie of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems||1932||Baron||Wessel von Loë||1928||See 44.32113|
|20.38362||Count||Joseph of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems||1934||Baroness||Marie Benedikta von Redwitz||1937|
|20.383621||Count||Vitus of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems||1961||Countess||Marie-Therese Nemes de Hidveg||1965|
|20.383622||Countess||Marie-Christine of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems||1962||Prince||Christian of Liechtenstein||1961|
|20.383623||Count||Alois of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems||1963||Countess||Maria Deym von Stritetz||1968||2000||Countess Deym von Stritetz was killed in a traffic accident at Buchloe|
|20.383623||Count||Alois of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems||1963||Antonella Rossi di Montelera||1970|
|20.383624||Countess||Maria Josefa of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems||1964||Count||Hans Caspar Schenk von Stauffenberg||1966||Hans Caspar Schenk von Stauffenberg is a grandson of Count Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg . Claus and his brother Berthold were leading members of the failed plot on 20 July 1944 to kill Adolf Hitler and it was Claus who actually planted the bomb in the conference room being used by Hitler. Claus was executed the following day on 21 July and his Berthold later on 10 August 1944|
|20.383625||Count||Nikolaus Maria of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems||1970||Maria Theresia Reuttner von Weyl-Mynett||1976|
|20.3837||Archduchess||Maria Elisabeth of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1901||1936|
|20.3838||Archduke||Clemens Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1904||1974||Countess||Elizabeth de Miremont Resseguier||1906||2000||Archduke Clemens renounced his membership of the Imperial House of Austria in 1930. He was originally granted the title Count of Altenburg for himself and descendants. This title was elevated to Prince of Altenburg in 1949|
|20.3839||Archduchess||Mathilde of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1906||1991||Ernest Hefel||1888||1974|
|20.383J||Archduchess||Agnes of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1911||1911|
|20.384||Archduchess||Karoline of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1869||1945||Prince||August Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha||1867||1922||See 28.5222 - Archduchess Karoline died of natural causes although some sources indicate she was shot in 1945 by the occupying Russian forces in Budapest. It's likely this misconception arose because she died at about the same time as her son Rainer who died in tragic circumstances and some genealogists assumed she followed the same fate.|
|20.385||Archduke||Albrecht Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1871||1896|
|20.386||Archduchess||Marie Antoinitte of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1874||1891|
|20.387||Archduchess||Maria Immakulata of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1878||1968||Duke||Robert of Württemberg||1873||1947||See 22.K314|
|20.388||Archduke||Rainer Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1880||1889|
|20.389||Archduchess||Henriette Maria of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1884||1886|
|20.38K||Archduke||Ferdinand Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1888||1891|
|20.39||Archduchess||Maria Anna of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1840||1841|
|20.3J||Archduke||Raineri Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1842||1844|
|20.3K||Archduchess||Maria Luisa of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1845||1917||Prince||Karl zu Isenburg und Büdingen (5th Prince von Isenburg)||1838||1899|
|20.3K1||Prince||Leopold Wolfgang zu Isenburg und Büdingen||1866||1933||Princess||Olga of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach||1869||1924||See 27.456 - Leopold was Hereditary Prince and renounced his rights on 2 February 1898 in favour of his younger brother Franz Joseph|
|20.3K1||Prince||Leopold Wolfgang zu Isenburg und Büdingen||1866||1933||Countess||Marie Eckbrecht von Dürckheim-Montmartin||1880||1937|
|20.3K11||Prince||Wilhelm Karl zu Isenburg und Büdingen||1903||1956||Countess||Helene von Korff gt Schmising-Kerssenbrock||1900||1974||Wilhelm Karl was a genealogist and the author of Europäische Stammtafeln|
|20.3K2||Princess||Antoinette zu Isenburg und Büdingen||1867||1943|
|20.3K3||Princess||Marie zu Isenburg und Büdingen||1868||1919|
|20.3K4||Prince||Franz Joseph zu Isenburg und Büdingen (6th Prince von Isenburg)||1869||1939||Princess||Friederike zu Solms-Braunfels||1873||1927||From 1913 the title zu Isenburg und Büdingen was shortened to von Isenburg|
|20.3K41||Princess||Marie Louise von Isenburg||1897||1970||Count||Wilhelm Hans von Oppersdorff||1896||1989|
|20.3K411||Count||Franz Eduard von Oppersdorff||1919||1985||Princess||Maria Theresia von Thurn und Taxis||1925||1997||See 24.463414|
|20.3K412||Count||Hans Georg von Oppersdorff||1920||2003||Princess||Marie Gabrielle zu Solms-Braunfels||1918||2003|
|20.3K413||Count||Josef Ferdinand von Oppersdorff||1922||2008||Countess||Maria Assunta von Schönburg-Glauchau||1935|
|20.3K414||Count||Friedrich Karl von Oppersdorff||1925||1985||Princess||Elisabeth of Hesse-Cassel||1940||See 45.414534|
|20.3K42||Prince||Wolfgang von Isenburg||1898||1899|
|20.3K43||Princess||Marie Alexandra von Isenburg||1899||1945||Prince||Eduard zu Windisch-Graetz||1891||1976||See 23.11235|
|20.3K44||Prince||Franz Ferdinand von Isenburg (7th Prince von Isenburg)||1901||1956||Countess||Irina Tolstoy||1917||1998|
|20.3K441||Princess||Irene Friederike von Isenburg||1940||Count||Wilhelm zu Stolberg-Stolberg||1927||2011|
|20.3K4411||Count||Franz-Joseph zu Stolberg-Stolberg||1962||Sibylle Kampmann||1965|
|20.3K4412||Countess||Isabel-Juliana zu Stolberg-Stolberg||1963||Prince||Léopold Engelbert of Arenberg (13 Duke of Arenberg)||1956||See 18.1511J1|
|20.3K4413||Countess||Irina Christiana zu Stolberg-Stolberg||1964||Count||Michel de Liedekerke||1965|
|20.3K441||Princess||Irene Friederike von Isenburg||1940||Jan ter Meer||1946|
|20.3K442||Princess||Maria Annunciata von Isenburg||1941||2020|
|20.3K443||Prince||Franz Alexander von Isenburg (8th Prince von Isenburg)||1943||2018||Countess||Christine von Saurma, Baroness von und zu der Jeltsch||1941|
|20.3K4431||Prince||Alexander Wolfgang von Isenburg (9th Prince von Isenburg)||1969||Sarah Lorenz||1981|
|20.3K4432||Princess||Katharina von Isenburg||1971||Archduke||Martin of Austria||1959||See 19.J32134|
|20.3K4433||Princess||Isabelle von Isenburg||1973||Prince||Friederich August "Carl" of Wied (8th Prince of Wied)||1961||See 33.821112|
|20.3K4434||Princess||Sophie Johanna von Isenburg||1978||Prince||Georg Friedrich of Prussia||1976||See 11.2111251 - Georg Friedrich is the present Head of the Imperial House of Hohenzollern (Prussia)|
|20.3K4435||Prince||Viktor Carl von Isenburg||1979|
|20.3K444||Princess||Elisabeth Christiane von Isenburg||1945||Franz Josef von Halem||1941|
|20.3K5||Prince||Karl von Isenburg und Büdingen||1871||1951||Bertha Lewis||1872||1939||Marriage Registration of Prince Karl and Bertha Lewis (in the index shown as Berta)|
|20.3K6||Prince||Viktor von Isenburg und Büdingen||1872||1946||Leontine Rohrer||1886||1950||Leontine was created Baroness von Rombach by the Grand Duke of Hesse on 31 Mar 1908|
|20.3K7||Prince||Alfons Maria von Isenburg und Büdingen||1875||1951||Countess||Pauline von Beaufort- Spontin||1876||1955|
|20.3K8||Princess||Elisabeth von Isenburg und Büdingen||1877||1943||Georg Beyer||1880||1941|
|20.3K9||Princess||Adelheid von Isenburg und Büdingen||1878||1936|
|20.3L||Archduke||Ludwig Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1847||1915||Ludwig Salvator led a full life as a traveller, sailor, scientist, artist and writer. A very interesting site on the life and times of Ludwig Salvator.|
|20.3M||Archduke||Johann Salvator of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1852||1890||Johann Salvator possibly better known as "John Orth" was presumed lost at sea 1890 when his boat St Margaret was lost off the coast of South America , though some believe he survived and settled in Patagonia. Johann Salvator following an argument with Emperor Franz Joseph renounced all titles and dignities and left Austria wishing henceforth to be known as "John Orth". "John Orth" apparently married an opera singer Mizzi (or Milli) Stubel in London.|
|20.4||Archduchess||Maria of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1799||1857|
|20.5||Archduchess||Maria Teresa of Austria (Tuscany Line)||1801||1855||King||Carlo Alberto of Sardinia||1798||1849||See 8 - Carlo born a Prince of Savoy-Carignano succeeded his distant cousin Charles Felix as King of Sardinia on 27 April 1831. Carlo declared war on Austria on 22 March 1848 and a year later he was defeated at the Battle of Novara and abdicated on 23 March 1849 (about three months prior to his death) in favour of his son Victor Emanuel|